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These Resource Sheets provide information and insights that may be useful in evaluating or implementing Best Management Practices in the winery. They are intended to be used in conjunction with your Water Quality Management Plan under STEP 3 - PLAN. All Resource Sheets are provided for informational use only.


Resource Sheet #1: 5-Step Approach to Water Management

Resource Sheet #2: Completing a Water Inventory

Resource Sheet #3: Key Performance Indicators

Resource Sheet #4: Baskets, Screens & Traps – Cleaning and Maintenance

Resource Sheet #5: Water Use Efficiency and Water Reuse

Resource Sheet #6: Establishing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

Resource Sheet #7: Reducing Chemical Usage

Resource Sheet #8: Reducing the Number of Cleaning Steps

Resource Sheet #9: Chemical Substitutions

Resource Sheet #10: Barrel Hydration and Sanitization

Resource Sheet #11: Source Water Treatment

Resource Sheet #12: Alternative technologies – Softeners, Boilers, and Refrigeration

Resource Sheet #13: Offsite Disposal of High-Strength Waste Streams

Resource Sheet #14: Optimizing Boiler and Refrigeration Demands and Operations



Use these guiding questions as you begin to evaluate opportunities for additional water quality actions in the winery.

Organic Matter (BOD) 

1.  Which activities in the winery have potential to generate solids?

2.  Are there additional opportunities to install screens or filters that remove solids from the wastewater stream?

3.  Are there procedures in place to separate and remove solids from equipment and floors before rinsing or washing?

4.  How might the winery recycle or reuse the winemaking solids?


5.  Which activities in your winery have the potential to generate salinity?

6.  Do you measure salinity in the winery’s source water or wastewater stream? If wastewater is discharged to land, have salt loadings been calculated?

7.  Has the winery completed an inventory of chemical inputs used at the winery to quantify the total volume used and their costs?

8.  Are there additional opportunities to reduce the use of chemical cleaners and sanitizers, for example by substituting ozone, steam or hot water?

Strategies for Sustainability

9.  What is the main benefit expected from implementing this practice or technology?

10. How much will it cost and how do costs compare to other options? Is it cost-effective, considering the specific conditions at the winery?

11. Can the practice or technology be implemented in a reasonable amount of time without disrupting production?

Reuse and Recycling

12. Which reuse category does each wastewater stream fall into? [Category 1 = “relatively clean, can be reused without treatment”, Category 2 = “Can be reused with limited treatment”, Category 3 = “Requires full treatment and/or disposal”]

13. What options are available to capture each wastewater stream?

14. What are the cost implications (including net savings) for each reuse option?


Sustainable Water Management Handbook for Small Wineries (Author: CSWA)


Comprehensive Guide to Sustainable Management of Winery Water and Associated Energy (Author: Kennedy Jenks Consultants)


Winery Water Efficiency and Hot Spots Tool (Author: CSWA)


Winery Process Wastewater Management Handbook (Author: Sustainable Winegrowing British Columbia)


Water & Wine Online Platform (Author: BLOOM and RiverLabs)


Browse the documents and worksheets referenced throughout this platform via the links below.

Strategies for Sustainability

Identifying Sustainability Options [PDF] (Source: Comprehensive Guide)

Evaluating Sustainability Options [XLS] (Source: Comprehensive Guide)

Reuse and Recycling

Wastewater Reuse as Irrigation [PDF] (Source: Comprehensive Guide)

Establishing a Sampling Regime [PDF] (Source: Comprehensive Guide)

Water Use Tracking

Sample Tracking Worksheet [XLS] (Source: Water & Wine)

Tracking Basic Data [PDF] (Source: Small Wineries Handbook)

Selecting a Flow Meter [PDF] (Source: Comprehensive Guide)

Hot Spots Tool [XLS] (Source: CSWA)

Example Water Inventory [PDF] (Source: Small Wineries Handbook)

Water Use Inventory Worksheet [XLS] (Source: Comprehensive Guide)

Operational Metrics Worksheet [XLS] (Source: Water & Wine)

Activity Metrics Worksheet [XLS] (Source: Water & Wine)

Cleaning Strategies

Sanitation Inventory Worksheet [XLS] (Source: Comprehensive Guide)

Treatment Systems

Treatment Options [PDF] (Source: Comprehensive Guide)

Land Application Methods [PDF] (Source: Comprehensive Guide)

key questions to consider
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